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Full text of "Poland Russia and Great Britain 1941-1945"

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known case in Warsaw at the end of March, 1942. At number 46, Dluga
Street* the Germans shot seventy persons, all the inhabitants of the
house—among them the eighty-year-old wife of the former Polish Am-
bassador in Ankara, Mme Olszevska.
On July 4, 1942, the Gestapo surrounded one of the villas in Czerniakow,
a suburb of Warsaw, where they suspected a printing plant. The Germans
shattered the windows with hand grenades and fired into the building with
their machine-guns. As a result two people were killed and two others
died of their wounds in hospital. The owner of the villa, Michael Kruk,
his wife and two sons, aged 15 and 17, and all the inhabitants of the nearby
houses were killed. Altogether eighty-three people perished.
When a small printing press was discovered at Grojec, near Warsaw, not
only were all the people working there killed in the encounter which followed,
but every inhabitant of the surrounding area, many people who had
nothing to do with the Underground Press. About one hundred and forty
persons in all lost their Hves.
There was also the episode where a printing office discovered by the
Gestapo was blown up and the editor-in-chief, as well as other members
of the staff, were shot. The next number to be issued was run off on a
duplicator, on paper of wretched quality, bearing the following words:
" We sincerely apologise to our readers for the fact that, owing to circum-
stances outside editorial control, the present number does not appear in
the form to which readers are accustomed ..."
THE HOME ARMY
The first Underground Polish Army appeared in the field in 1863, and
fought against the occupying Russians for one year. The Underground
Army created in 1915-1918, during the German occupation of the whole
of Poland, revealed itself only in November, 1918, completely surprising
the Germans. This army of fifty thousand members, the scaffolding of
which was the Polish Military Organisation—P.O.W. (Polska Organizaqa
Wojskowa)—was led by General Smigly Rydz, and it became the basis
for the building of a force numbering a million and a half men, a force
which was to arrest the Communist invasion of Europe in 1920. The
effect of the appearance of this Underground Army in that year of 1918
was enormous both in Poland and in Europe. It should be recalled that,
although Germany had been defeated on the West at that time, she had
attained a complete victory on the Eastern front. The German forces
had penetrated deeper into Russia than during the Second Great War,
occupying the Caucasus, and benefitring from the oil of Baku and Tiflis
and, while still in possession of this front, had negotiated and signed the
treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Soviets. Frightened by the growing
threat of Communism, the Allies had given the Germans a free hand in
Russia. The Armistice signed by Foch on November n, 1918, at Com-
piegne, allowed them to stay there until " further instructions." The
Germans hoped to be able to take advantage of the fruits of that Eastern
victory, but the appearance of this Polish Underground Army, which,
proceeded to occupy the railroads in their rear, destroyed this plan.
General Falkenhayn had watched with dread his Eastern Front practically
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